Tuesday, March 24, 2020
Friday, March 6, 2020
Printable Hundred Chart and Blank Hundred Chart The hundred chart is a valuable learning resource to help young children with counting to 100, counting by 2s, 5s, 10s, multiplication, and seeing counting patterns. You can play counting games with students based on the hundredÃ chart worksheets, which the student either fills in on their own, or you can print out a hundred chart that is prefilled with all the numbers. Regular use of the hundred chart from kindergarten to the 3rd grade supports many counting concepts. Help With Seeing Patterns Use a prefilled hundred chart or ask your students to fill their own. As a student fills in the chart, the child will begin to see patterns emerge. You can ask the question, Circle in red the numbers on the chart that end in 2. Or, similarly, put a blue box around all numbers ending in 5.Ã Ask what they notice and why they think it is happening. Repeat the process with numbers ending in 0. Talk about the patterns they notice. You can help students practice their multiplication tables in the chart by counting by 3s, 4s, or whichever multiplier and coloring in those numbers. Counting Games To save on paper,Ã you can provide students with a laminated copy of aÃ hundred chartÃ for quicker access. There are many games that can be played on a hundred chart that help children learn about counting to 100, placement, andÃ order of number. Simple word problems you can try include addition functions, such as, What number is 10 more than 15? Or, you can practice subtraction, like, What number isÃ 3 less than 10. Skip counting games can be a fun way to teach a fundamental concept using a marker or coins to cover all the 5s or 0s. Have children name the numbers underneath without peeking. Similar to a game like Candy Land, you can have two children play together on one chart with a small marker for each player and a dice. Have each student start at the first square and move in numerical order through the chart and have a race to the end square. If you want to practice addition, start from the first square. If you want to practice subtraction, start from the last square and work backward. Make Math a Puzzle You can teach place value by cutting up the columns (lengthwise) into strips. You can have the students work together to reorder the strips into a complete hundred chart. Alternatively, you can cut up the hundred chart into big chunks, like a puzzle. Ask the student to piece it back together. Make Math a Mystery You can play a game called Too Big, Too Small, with a large group of children and a hundred chart. You can base it on the entire hundred chart. You can preselect a number (mark it somewhere, then conceal it). Tell the group that you have a number one through 100 and they must guess it. Each person gets a turn to guess. They can each say one number. The only clue you will give is, too big, if the number exceeds the preselected number, or too small, ifÃ the number is less than the preselected number. Have the children mark off on their hundred chart the numbers that are canceled out by your clues of too big, and too small.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Hobbes's key Philosophical contributions to social and political Philisophy - Research Paper Example This, in its turn, logically resulted in the second provision which is attributed to the philosopher in question: the concept of war of all against all (Bobbio 41). Finally, there is another contribution which should be marked in particular: Hobbes suggested that religion should play a lesser role in explaining the state of social affairs which led to decrease of role of religion in science in general. As for the political dimension of his legacy, one should point out that this philosopher advocated the idea of a social contract that all the people concluded in order to stop the chaos around them. In addition to that, this idea is closely connected to the considerations about the positive role of an absolute monarch which embodied the power which the other people were not able to resist (Lloyd 289). In other words, the institute of monarchy that is condemned by the modern democratic society is what Hobbes valued rather
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Training and development is said to be beneficial for both firms and employees. Why then are some organisations and individuals reluctant to invest in training - Research Paper Example he essay will develop into an analysis of various factors that characterise training and development such as human resources development as well as mentoring and coaching. This section will also attempt to investigate why other organisations and individuals are reluctant to invest in this noble initiative that is beneficial to both parties involved. A conclusion will be drawn at the end on the basis of the main ideas that are going to be raised in the main part of the discussion which is centred on training and development. During the contemporary period, it can be noted that organisations operate in a dynamic environment which is characterised by different changes. In most cases, these changes are necessitated by various factors which include the following: economic, political, social as well as cultural and demographic among others (Schultz et al 2003). In order for the organisation to remain viable as well keep pace with the changes taking place in the environment, it is imperative for them to put measures that the employees are developed and trained to know the changes that may take place in their operations so as to be prepared to face the consequences that may affect their day to day dispensation of duties. WorkersÃ¢â¬â¢ skills ought to be upgraded to meet the dictates of the constantly changing environment in which they will be operating. It is imperative to provide basic training to the employees so that they are equipped with the required knowledge to undertake the challenging tasks that can arise as a result of change in the operations of the organisation that can be encountered. Basically, employee training is job related learning that is provided by the employers for their employers and the aim is improvement of the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ skills, knowledge and attitude so that they can perform their duties according to the set standards (Swanepoel et al 1998). More often than not, successful training begins with the needs assessment to determine which employees
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Impact of Sex Tourism on Thailand The purpose of this project is to provide an overview of the sex tourism industry in Thailand. Moreover, discuss what it is as well as consider the motivations behind it. This paper will also focus on the benefits and disadvantages, particularly the domestic social consequences of sex tourism within Thailand. The accessibility problem of the tourism industry has caused prostitution to grow steadily throughout many parts of the world and includes men (Garrick, 2005), women and children. Furthermore, the sex tourism is a major source of abuse that goes beyond professional ethics and legality. Although prostitution is legal in some countries, it thrives regardless with children, women and men involved in this ubiquitous profession legally or illegally. Nowadays, sex tourism is one of leading commercial industries that lurk in almost every business. Good or Bad? This research will show how the negative effects of sex tourism far outweigh the benefits. Many organizations, both public and private collaborations, are against sex tourism, even though Thailands revenue comes from sex tourism more than other business (Rao, 1999; Sharpley Stone, 2009). However, there are many supporters such as restaurants, hotels, resorts and tour agencies that could lose a lot of money from this veiled industry if the resisters decide to eliminate prostitution, but such actions can possibly decrease the rate of abuse and diseases, especially AIDS(Prideaux, et al., 2004). Keywords: tourism, sex tourism, child sex tourism, sex tourist, push and pull factor, Thailand, prostitution, AIDS INTRODUCTION The international tourism industry is blooming. Tourism is the worlds most important industry which is growing rapidly and increasing every year. In the year 1972 to 1976, Thailand is one of the countries that have experienced tourism growth since the first Thai tourism plan was set up in 1976 at the end of third National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP) (Chaisawat, 2005). Thailand has become one of the best known, and most sought after, international tourist destinations. Thailand is a country with long history and it is also a beautiful city, the attraction of the scenery in Thailand where not less than the other country (Nations Online, 2010).ÃâÃ Moreover, Thailand is probably one of the most well-known spots for the perfect beach paradise. Its natural beauty makes it perfect for people seeking a little hideaway (Beachden, 2010). Thailand has become the most popular tourist destination in South East Asia. Tourism has become Thailands leading source of foreign exchange, and thus plays an unquestionably important role in the Thai economy. At the same time, Th ailand is suffering from many of the negative aspects of tourism, including prostitution, drug addiction, AIDS, erosion of traditional values, increases in the cost of living, unequal income distribution, rapid increases in land prices in some locations, pollution, and environmental degradation (Prideaux, et al., 2004). According to Crompton (1979, pp.408-424) states that the push factors for a vacation are socio-psychological motives, for instant people go to aboard that because political crisis in Thailand, it also include terrorism in three province of Sotherns border. The pull factors are motives aroused by the destination rather than emerging exclusively from within the traveller himself, such as visitor come to Thailand for sex trade . People travel for many reasons. In addition, sex is not the main reason, but it is a relative factor for motivating people of all ages and nationalities to turn more towards traveling (Sangpikul, 2008). Anyway, no one can deny that sex is not a motivating factor (Hall, 1996).The number of international tourist arrivals to Thailand are more male than female tourist. According to UNWTO reported that in the year 2008, the number of international tourist arrivals in the year 2006 to 2008 was increased (UNWTO, 2009). Several tourists have the same objectives that are encouraged for have a sexual intercourse. However, Thailand has been involved with a kind of tourism called the international sex tourism (Pettman, 1997).The relationship between tourism and sex can be described as the seeking of romance as perhaps a precursor to sexual activities play as motivators for travel; the nature of the encounter and the role played by tourism as facilitators of romantic and sexual encounter. The purpose of this report is concern of the sex tourism in Thailand. Beside, this essay would like to describe and to discuss in the advantages and disadvantages of sex tourism to tourism industry in Thailand. WHAT IS SEX TOURISM? Sex tourism is a very lucrative industry that spans the globe. Of course, the burgeoning sex industry has its dark sides (Rao, 1999). But as sex is a human need and prostitution is here to stay, we should think about a pro-active and realistic approach to deal with the situation. Although, sex tourism is the part of dark side but the earning is come from sex tourism more than other tourism (Sharpley Stone, 2009). The statistics cannot be shown how much of the percentage constitutes tourists who come for sexual services. Nevertheless, it the high male sex ratio is associated with sex tourism, and then the trend is increasing rather than decreasing. Sex tourism, present throughout the world, is particular prevalent in Southeast Asia, where the connected problems of human trafficking, AIDS, and poverty, continue to flourish and claim lives at unprecedented rates( Croughs et al, 2005). According to Jeffrey (2003, pp.224) is defined sex tourism has generally been applied to behavior of tourists whose purpose is to engage in commercial sex with local women in tourist destinations, it can have a wider application. Moreover, sex tourism asÃâÃ travel undertaken primarily or exclusively by men from developed countries, usually to third world countries, for the purpose of engaging in sexual activity, often of an extreme, forbidden, or illegal nature (Travel Industry Dictionary, 2010).In other word, sex tourism as consisting of people from economically developed nations travelling to underdeveloped countries specifically to purchase the sexual services of local women [and men], it embraces a far broader range of people, activities and location (Enloe,1990). For others, however, it means purchasing sexual services from a woman, man, or even a child, and imagining themselves as Love Gods. It cannot be denied that the sex tourism industry has diversified beyond the tradi tional conceptualizations that label it as a predominantly patriarchal form of exploitation and leisure (Garrick, 2005). Sex tourism includes domestic sex tourism, which is travel within the same country, or international sex tourism which involves travel across national borders. It is a multibillion dollar industry that supports an international workforce estimated to number in the millions (Revista, 2002). It has been argued by some people that sex tourism benefits not only the sex industry but also the airline, taxi, restaurant and hotel industries (Jones, 1946-2006). Human Rights organizations warn that sex tourism contributes to human trafficking and child prostitution (Guzder, 2009). Seriously, child sex tourism is involved to the sex tourism. Even though,ÃâÃ ECPAT (End Child Prostitution and Trafficking) as the international organizations that care about child prostitution.ÃâÃ And children illegally brought into the profession to see that, in third world countries are tourism promotion mainly to do with the sun, sea and sex that intended for tourists to have sex (ECPAT International, 2010). Mostly from developed countries such as Australia, New Zealand, English, French.ÃâÃ As well as some of the developing countries like China, Malaysia, Singapore, tourists are concentrated in large areas such as Pattaya, Manila, Phnom Penh as a tourist destination with heavy clubs and bars, as well as other entertainment venues. Who is a sex tourist? According to Rao (1999, pp.96) it is a man who is going through a mid-life crisis, who has been disenchanted with his enjoyment of life due to feminism and womans liberation rhetoric; a man who is tired of taking a politically correct position on his sexual preferences because of social pressure sex tourist can be a worker, professional, or manager, but all of them want to feel like real men. Moreover, a good definition, those who travel to a country for the sole purpose of having sex, see it as an opportunity, or even an entitlement, to have sex available for less money than they would pay at home. Sex tourists trend not to differentiate between buying groceries, and going to the brothel to buy sex-both provide someone with economic sustenance. They perceive that those involved in the industry are making a choice to sell their service. Sex tourism in Thailand in the past found thatÃâÃ tourism is related to the sex, activities or services by prostitutes. In the past, sex tourism in Thailand that often seen in cities or large cities such as Bangkok, Pattaya, Phuket, Chiang Mai. Presently, the sex tour was hidden to the general tourism such as festival; Full Moon party at Kho Phangan is located on southern of Thailand. Thailand and the Philippines, sex shows are presented with the primary purpose of gaining pleasure simply from watching (Latza quoted in Opperman, 1999). From this Opperman subvert the original definition by asking what the criteria are for definition sex tourism. Would oral sex, hand jobs, or watching a sex show be enough to qualify a tourist as a sex tourist? BENEFITS ARISING FROM SEX TOURISM Ryan and Kinder (1996, pp.516) argued that to regards sex tourism as some form of deviance, as something that foreign to the intrinsic nature of tourism, is mistake. However, it is important to note that prostitutes are the key ingredient in the sex tourism industry (BirdDonaldson, 2009). The prostitution is one occupation that has the longest and ancient history in the world. It was recovered that after shuffle goods system or origins money goes up by give a woman engages in sexual intercourse with the other(except her spouse) for religion reason, for show arrive at having mind generousness to welcome visitor, show arrive at the worth of bring governor of a province (Taylor, 2006). Prostitution in Third World and emerging Nations, disregarding the subsistence economy (economical method which except for exchange of goods embarks the purpose to cover the personal requirements) and the development of the rural areas by falling row material prices on the world market and the subsidization individual exporting business sectors leads to a growing depletion of the rural population. As in many of these countries tourism makes big part of the cross national product more importance is attached to the development of mass tourism rather than on other essential measures to counteract the depletion of big parts of the population (Taylor, 2006). Thus the number of women and men prostituting themselves in emerging countries grows in parallel in the same measure as tourism increases. In most of these countries, same as in Thailand, prostitution is forbidden. However the service providing women and men are the ones suffering from these restrictions (Taylor, 2006). As the device bringing foreigners must not be scared off long term suitors only have to reckon with penalties rarely. Due to this poorness in these countries a growing migration into cities can be observed. Many countrymen flee into the cities as there the chances for economical success and covering the family is bigger than in the infrastructural neglected rural areas where they derive from. Poorness, missing education, lack of jobs, no alternatives in career, low wages and missing social coverage are the main reasons for the growing number of prostitutes. Prostitution for foreign visitors developed into a major industry, although official Thailand shrouds its economic and social significance in misinformation and variety of interesting hypocrisies. Prostitutes come mainly from poor northern Thailand; however, there are now some educated prostitutes coming from the cities, as well as prostitutes from all neighboring countries and even Eastern Europe. No one can deny a lot of earning is come from sex tourism more than other industry. Although, the prostitute is rapid growth same as sex tourism but it a quite good signal that it also mean many tourist come to Thailand and high exchange rate within Thailand. Concisely, Sex tourism has become a major source of income in some countries, particularly those with poor and underprivileged sectors, to the point that some countries have even tried to promote the business (Nuttavuthisit, 2007). In addition to the sex tourism related with hospitality industry, they are get the revenue and more people are employed from sex tourism, such as restaurant, bar, hotel, massage etc.ÃâÃ The one reason is sex worker and sex tourist will negotiation in those place then they can get money from all service which they sold their product. For instant, the prostitute and sex tourist are communicate by website or web board on internet, after that they have appointment in some restaurant. While they made negotiation in their business that they have to order something to eat or drink. That is why everybody can get income when the sex tourists come to Thailand for sex trade. DISADVANTAGE OF SEX TOURISM IN THAILAND Internet has provided a convenient marketing way that is accounting for the recent rise in sex tourism. Websites provide potential sex seekers with pornographic accounts written by other sex tourists. Here can be found details of sexual exploits with information on sex establishments and prices in various destinations and how to specifically procure prostitutes. Sex tour travel agents even publish brochures and guides on the Internet (Chow-White, 2006). Governments in need of income from the sex tourism turn a blind eye to the sexual exploitation. Moreover, sex tourism on the internet is at the confluence of issues of race, gender, sexuality, technology and globalization (Chow-White, 2006). Increasingly, information and communication technologies(ICTs), such as the internet, are playing a particularly significant role not only in the promotion and packaging of sex tourism but a new type of global surveillance of bodies, race and desire(Gabriel,1998;Ware Back, 2002). In contrast, prostitution tourism has been promoted by the Government in the Philippines because of its profitability. Income generated from visitor arrivals in 1992 was US$1.67 billion and in 1993 was US$2.12 billion (Jeffreys, 1999), but sex tourism in Thailand is illegal in some business so the Thailand tourism authority (TAT) cannot promote same as Philippines. Moreover, Thailand is the root of Buddhism. The sex trade is wrong ethic. In other word, to the common opinion prostitution in Thailand is due to the informal handling of sexuality or has its roots in Buddhism, prostitution was imported by Chinese guest-workers. At the beginning with Chinese women which were in the course of time more and more replaced by locals. The degree of prostitution as it can be observed in Thailand today is a direct consequence of the Vietnam War. Many of them are forced to become what is known as, ÃâÃ Bangkok Tour GirlsÃâÃ .This form of exploitation is not only limited to local prostitution but has paved way for sex tourism, earning Thailand the notorious distinction of Brothel of the World. The sex tourism statistics of Thailand invite worldwide criticisms. Among these, one third fraction is minors. There are absolutely no records indicating the number of Thai women and children being trafficked to various other countries in Asia, US, Australia and Europe. The sex industry in Thailand generates fantasies. There are the fantasies of pliant girls which draw the western sex tourists, and then there are the fantasies of lurid exploitation which draw the western sex tourists, and then there are the fantasies of lurid exploitation which draw the western moralizers and NGOs. But what is the actual scale of prostitution in Thailand? And how serious is the trafficking problem? Many organizations, both public and private collaborations, are against sex tourism, even though the revenue comes from sex tourism ore than other tourism. However, there are many supporters such as restaurants, hotels, resorts and tour agencies that could lose a lot of money from this veiled industry if the resisters decide to eliminate prostitution, but such actions can possibly decrease the rate of abuse and diseases, especially AIDS. Thailand undeniably has serious problems regarding the sex trade, as do many other countries. There is, however, a perception that the problem is much worse in Thailand because many people think that the country provides easy access to these types of services. Thailands sex industry has become a tourist attraction in itself, with red light districts being recommended in several reputable guidebooks (Kusy, 1991). Estimates of the number of prostitutes in Thailand vary widely and are subject to controversial debate. Although, sex tourism in Thailand is make the money more that other business but TAT still against this business that because a lot of victim of trafficking from child (TATnews, 2010). The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand has had a decided impact on the tourism industry in that the countrys reputation for having a high incidence of AIDs discourages desirable tourists from visiting it. Likewise the tourism industry has had considerable impact on the spread of AIDS in Thailand ( McCamish, et al.,2002). Thailand has long been promoted as the sex capital of the world; encouraging tourists to come to Thailand specifically for this reason obviously brings a higher transmission of the disease from sources both inside and outside the country. It should be noted that there are other important factors contributing to the high incidence of AIDS and HIV-positive cases in Thailand which have nothing to do with the tourism industry, one major one being Thai males penchant for frequenting prostitutes both before and after marriage. Initially, the Thai government did not take prompt and appropriate action to deal with the AIDS crisis. It did not try to curtail the sex industry, believing that it would naturally fade as the economy prospered and job opportunities increased. Later, as the government began to realize the severity of the situation, it tackled the problem only by promoting the use of condoms, rather than by using a multi-pronged approach, which would have included the attenuation of the sex industry. CONCLUSION Thailand is a country with long history. There are also many interesting attractions. Contrast,ÃâÃ travelers visit to Thailand for sexual intercourse. Although, quite revenues are come from sex tourism, but it also has many disadvantages thatÃâÃ because of the rapidly growing in sex tourism same as the prostitution is the one of immoral. Otherwise, Thailand is a Buddhist country, it made the prostitution is wrong ethic. On the other word, the prostitution is increasing due to revenues beautiful.ÃâÃ Moreover, It is easy to do and easy to get more money.ÃâÃ The people who play in the prostitution are alwaysÃâÃ forgotten Safety, such as forgot the condom that they can get easily AIDS and world widely expand.ÃâÃ Sex tourism is a significant part of Thailands economy. If governments and related agencies are collaborate in the development of sex tourism and prostitute to be legal, maybe the image of Thailands tourism will be change in the good way (Taylor, 2006). Moreover, people who work in sex trade does not have to go to abroad for done their job.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
B. Pertussis is a bacterium that is responsible for causing whooping cough. The symptoms and signs develop as a result of action of the Pertussis toxin on the upper respiratory tract (containing ciliated ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium). The individual develops several episodes of uncontrollable coughing. The characteristic whoop sound is heard during the cough. It develops especially when the individual is breathing in. The individual also develops fever, diarrhoea and a running nose .Before understanding the mechanism by which the toxin acts (that is a transduction mechanism), it is important that the physiology of transduction is understood. Receptors are present on the surface of a cell which helps it to communicate with its external world. Specific molecules bind with these receptors present in the external environment and are recognised by the cell. Once these molecules bind to the receptors a cascade of intracellular signals may be produced which brings about sev eral processes and actions in the cell.A number of antigens or molecules can be recognised by receptors preset on the surface of the cell, following which signals are transmitted within the cell. The lymphocyte cells can bind with and recognise several antigens (belonging to various microorganism and foreign substances). The receptors which are present on the surface of the lymphocytes are made up of complexes containing multiple proteins. Some of the antigens are capable of binding with receptors present on the surface of the lymphocyte and stimulate them to divide further or differentiate into specific effectors cells having a certain function.Some of the antigens are also capable of brining about death of degeneration of the cell. The receptors present on the two types of lymphocytes may be different from each other and are able to recognise different molecules or antigens. However, in both lymphocytes, the intracellular signal pathway is similar. Ultimately, the nucleus is activ ated and alterations occur in the genes to enable a reaction from the lymphocyte (including gene expression) . Receptors are present on the surface of the cell, where molecules bind, and the cell is able to identify the molecule that has attached.The receptor proteins are able to produce a signal once the molecule has attached to the receptor. This signal is transmitted across the plasma membrane, and brings about intracellular events. Signal transduction is a process by which signals are transformed from one form to another. The transformation of the intracellular signal ensures that the message is transmitted in a forward direction, to its destination. The signal may be transmitted to various portions of the cell and may be also get amplified. Finally, the nucleus receives the intracellular signal and the genetic transcription helps to bring about division of the cell .Most of the studies conducted currently for signal transduction were performed on animals, and only a few are con ducted on human subjects . Hence, a lot need to be studied in the field of signal transduction. In some receptors present on the surface of the cell, once antigens are bound with specific molecules, certain ion channels are opened up and an ionic gradient exists that works as an intracellular signal. In certain other cells, when the receptor combines with the molecule, a change in the protein occurs that causes the cytoplasm to get stimulated, resulting in transmission of intracellular signals.When the receptor combines with the specific molecule, a signal is transmitted that enables the receptors to cluster on the surface of the cell. This clustering results in the receptor producing a very strong signal. The exact manner in which the receptors clustering occur is still not understood. However, if the cell contacts another cell that has several copies of the MHC protein complex, they begin to recognise it and cluster around . The receptors present on the cell, usually bring about i ntracellular signals by stimulating the enzyme protein tyrosine kinase (they add phosphate group to tyrosine residues).The receptors on the cytoplasmic front contain tyrosine kinase that is usually inactive. However, when clustering occurs, they begin to stimulate each other through transphosphorlyation, which further activate the biochemical signalling molecules present in the cytoplasm. On the antigen front of the receptor, no tyrosine kinase is available and hence the cytoplasmic front combines with the tyrosine kinase present in the cytoplasm. During clustering, the enzymes are closer to each other, which help to activate the intracellular signalling mechanism.The biochemical activity of the cell is regulated by phosphorylation of the enzymes and proteins by the tyrosine kinase. Phosphorylation makes certain enzymes active, and once they are dephosphorylated (by the enzyme protein phosphatase), they become inactive. Once an enzyme is phosphorylated, new binding sites are created for the target proteins . Phospholipase C-gamma enzyme is present at the tyrosine receptor or the plasma membrane and can attach itself to phosphotryrosine. This enzyme amplifies and forwards the signal.Once tyrosine kinase gets phosphrylated, the phopholipid is broken down into 2 components, namely DAG and IP3. Many DAG and IP3 molecules are produced from single molecules of PLC-gamma, and in this way the signal gets amplified. The IP3 combines with the receptors present on the endoplasmic reticulum, causing the release of calcium ions, and thus raising the level of calcium intracellularly. The signal is maintained even when the Calcium ions are exhausted, as calcium channels present on the cell membrane are opened and the extra-cellular calcium flows in.The Calcium ion binding protein Calmodulin is also activated that controls the activity of other enzymes present in the cell. The signal is transmitted to the nucleus. DAG on the other hand activates the enzyme Protein kinase C. T hey may act in several mechanisms to finally ensure that the signal has reached the nucleus . Calmodulin also controls the activity of the enzyme adenylate cyclase produced by the human cell GTP-proteins help to transmit the signal from the tyrosine kinase receptors to the nucleus. Ras is the most common type of GTP-proteins.It may be activated once the molecule comes in contact with the receptor. Ras can be bound to GTP or GDP. The GDP form of Ras is inactive compared to the GTP. This inter-conversion is brought about by the enzyme Ras-GTPase. Usually, the GTP-proteins are present in an inactive form and are activated once the specific molecule comes in contact with the receptor. GDP can also be converted to GTP by GEFÃ¢â¬â¢s. Activation of GTP-proteins leads to activation of several protein kinases (known as Ã¢â¬ËMAP-kinaseÃ¢â¬â¢). MAP-kinase can bring about phophrylation and activation of nucleus transcription .B. Pertussis sticks to the cell with the help of Ã¢â¬Å"filamen tous hemagglutininÃ¢â¬ (FHA). The Pertussis Toxin also helps to bind the bacterial cell to the host cell. During the colonization of the bacteria, the toxin plays a very important role in invasion . The substance Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) produced by B. Pertussis combines with the receptor integrin present on the plasma membrane. This in turn stimulates increased binding of another portion of FHA with another receptor present on the plasma membrane known as Ã¢â¬Ëcomplement receptor-3Ã¢â¬â¢ (CR-3).In this way as the binding of the B. Pertussis antigen is increased with the receptors present on the plasma membrane, the signal produced is strong . The Pertussis Toxin mainly helps the bacterial cell to attach itself to the epithelium of the trachea. The Pertussis toxin is made up of 5 subunits (obtained through the process of gel electrophoresis), namely S-1, S-2, S-3, S-4 and S-5. In fact, the S-4 component is two in number . The subunit S-4 is present in a larger ratio co mpared to the others.The Pertussis toxin has two components namely, A-promoter (S-1) which brings about the toxin enzymatic activity, and B-oligomer (S-2, S-3, S-4 and S-5), which helps the toxin to bind to the receptor present on the plasma membrane. The Pertussis toxin produces several physiological effects including rise in the lymphocyte count, activating the islet cells to release greater amounts of insulin and exaggerating the effects of histamine. The physiological effects of Pertussis toxin mainly brings about it effect on the G-i component of the adenylate cyclase.The toxin works by ADP-ribosylation of G-i protein provided by the S-1 component of the toxin . Compared to normal stimuli, activation with the Pertussis toxin results in greater accumulation of the cAMP within the cells. Agents that obstruct production of cAMP are inactivated by the Pertussis toxin. When the cell is affected with Pertussis toxin and toxin acts on G-i protein, the responses to various chemotactic agents are reduced, suggesting that G-i plays a very important role in the development of immunity.Transducin is Guanine-protein present in the rods and the cones that activates cyclic AMP-selective phosphodiesterase. ADP-ribosylation of tranducin is also stimulated by Pertussis toxin . By altering the manner in which G-proteins are bound, the bacterial toxin can obstruct the signal transduction process. The toxin brings about ADP-ribosylation of certain alpha subunits of the G-protein component of adenylate cyclase namely G-i, G-o, G-t, G-gust, and G-s is not converted to G-olf. Once G-i is ribosylated, the enzyme adenylate cyclase is reduced increasing the level of cAMP .Once the levels of cAMP are raised, the function of the phagocytic cells is reduced (such as chemotaxis, engulfment, bactericidal action, etc) . The S-1 component of the Pertussis toxin is united with the B-oligomer portion in a non-covalent manner. The B-oligomer portion helps the toxin to attach to the receptor present on the plasma membrane. Without the B-oligomer portion, the S-1 component of the Pertussis toxin is unable to pass through the cell . The S-2 and the S-3 components of the Pertussis Toxin mainly help in adhesion of the cell to the host cells.Ciliated epithelial cells contain a glycolipid that helps the S-2 component to bind, whereas the phagocyctic cells contain glycoprotein that helps to bind the S-3 component . Certain opioid receptors are present on the surface of the cell that is linked with the G-protein receptor family. Once the opioid receptors have been activated by the Pertussis toxin, the G-proteins that are sensitive to the Pertussis toxin (namely G-i and/or G-o) are stimulated. The ADP-ribose portion of the NAD is transferred to the G-i. G-i gets inactivated and does not obstruct adenylate cyclase.The intracellular concentration of cAMP increases because the transformation of ATP to AMP cannot be controlled . This results in generation of an intracellular signal which activates the gene transcription in the nucleus and brings about cell division. Once the opioid receptor has been activated, the enzyme Adenylate cyclase is decreased and the Cyclic AMP levels present in the cell are increased. Calcium channels are repressed and inward flow of potassium ions are stimulated by the opioid receptors. When the opioid receptors were stimulated, neuronal excitability reduced.Opioid receptors activation can also bring about activation of the MAP-kinase. Once this occurs, arachidonate may be released and genes c-fos and jun-B are expressed . BvgA and BvgS proteins help the B. Pertussis to express adhesions, virulence factors and toxins. BvgA appear similar to the regulator component, whereas BvgS appears similar to the regulator and sensory component. This system helps to bring about phosphorylation cascade following sensory inputs. As transmission and receiving can occur in this system, a signal pathway system does exist.The cytoplasmic front of the BvgS autophosphorylates with ATP (r-phosphate portion). BvgA is phosphorylated following transfer of BvgS of the phosphate group to the Asp. Gene expression may occur in relation to phosphrylation of BvgA . The human IL-1 stimulates release of kappa Ig-L by the pre-B Cell lines, IL-2R by the Natural Killer cell Lines and PGE2 by the rheumatoid synvovial cells. However, all these IL-stimulated factors are reduced by the Pertussis toxin, which may be associated the cAMP production.As IL-1 stimulates GTPase activity, Pertussis Toxin brought about a reduction in GTPase activity. Pertussis toxin also stimulated ADP-ribosylation of the enzyme adenylate cyclase in the membrane of cells that are usually activated in cells sensitive to IL-1 . Once the cell is affected with the Pertussis toxin, agents that would otherwise obstruct the collection of cAMP are no longer effective. The Pertussis toxin brings about certain cell transduction mechanism that further enables the cell to be invaded by the microorganism .Many of the bacterial toxins such as Cholera Toxin, E. coli labile toxin and the Pertussis toxin act in the same manner and produce the same effect (that is a rise in the cAMP levels of the cell). However, the symptoms and signs of each of these disorders are different. This is mainly because the target tissues and cells of each of these toxins are different. The Pertussis toxin mainly acts on the epithelium of the respiratory tract causing several symptoms such as whoop, cough, breathing problems and cyanosis .
Friday, January 10, 2020
Art, culture, and society; these three elements are closely linked. These three elements affect one another in one way or another. There is often a conflict of interest between the artist, the audience, and the government body. The artistÃ¢â¬â¢s aim is to express art freely. The audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s aim is to view art in forms that are not offensive to them. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s aim is to mitigate the conflict of interest between the two parties by implementing policies and restrictions to art pieces that are produced and viewed. Controversy is an issue to take into consideration by the government when funding art and censoring art. This is due to art pieces being widely reached through the advances of technology. Audiences of art are thus easily accessible to art that could influence or offend. However, art is innately challenging and often provocative. Creativity would be stifled if the government funded only art so bland that it offended no one. Creativity would also be stifled if the government creates censorship to limit art that challenges the strongly held beliefs of the society. These concerns raise a few questions to Art in the society. Firstly, how much restriction should the government restrict the type of art forms that could have an adverse effect on the society? Or rather what limitations on censorship and funding should be made for the sake of artist value, or more broadly freedom of expression? Secondly, should it be the responsibility for the artist to take into consideration the effect on the viewer when creating art pieces that may seem controversial to others? In Singapore, Art is increasingly promoted. The promotion of Art in Singapore can be seen from the provision of arts institution that provides full time programmes for the performing arts, the implementation of the yearly Singapore Art Festival which provides a platform for artist to express their talent and for the community to appreciate and to understand Art better, and the funding from the government to arts companies, the opening of the Art Science Museum in February 2012, etc. Although Art is increasingly promoted in Singapore, artistic freedom is being under assaulted. Freedom is threatened by pressures from the government. The society only accepts art that is socially acceptable; one that does not break the law and does not offend any individual. The recent works of a student of an art institution in Singapore is one example that provides evidence for freedom of artistic expression being restricted. The artist printed stickers with captions and pasted them on a pavement and on road traffic signs an act of a guerrilla art scene. She also painted Ã¢â¬Å"My Grandfather Road. Ã¢â¬ along certain roads in Singapore. While her works portrays certain value of the Singaporean Culture, where singlish and certain forms of lingos are being used in her stickers and paintings, they are then being deemed by the law as vandalism. This specific act of art creation has roared a debate among netizens in Singapore, with many fighting for freedom for creative expression, while the others stating that what she did was merely seeking attention, vandalism, or creating art of no value. In 1994, a performing artist was fined for committing an obscene act. In his performance, he snipped his pubic hair before a small audience as a symbolic protest against police entrapment of gays, punishment by flogging, jail sentences for Ã¢â¬Å"victimlessÃ¢â¬ crimes, and news media exposure of those convicted. He was also prohibited from future public performances. While the artist did this for the love of art and in the interest of expanding the general outlook of art in Singapore, The National Arts Council branded the acts Ã¢â¬Å"vulgarÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"extremely distasteful. If the government funds and allows only art that is has no controversial value, then wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t creativity be buried in our society? Also, if art works is created to conform to the norm of the society, is art still art? Art is a form of freedom, expression, creativity, and life. However, from the above two examples, it can be seen that there is a constraint place on freedom of artistic expression and the value of art. Artists can express art only with lawful restrictions. Artists who are daring enough to oppose to such norms are either being punish, or their art works are being restricted from the audience. The rest restricts their work to those that conforms to the societal norms. With these restrictions, art can never be expressed in its original form; audience can never be exposed to some brilliant art works which may be vulgar to some but artistic to others. By total restriction of art works that lack redeeming social values, we will be exposed to only art that conforms. This would cause depreciation in the value of art in our society. Despite the fact that art should be freely expressed to preserve its value of creativity, it is important to take into consideration what effect some art works may have on our society. It can be seen that the two artists go against cultural norms to showcase art works that breaks away from the norm and set themselves different from others. By breaking away from the cultural norm, viewers with his or her set of cultural values may be offended. However, by silencing art pieces that the majority considers offensive, we may be oppressing the minority and preventing the society from learning the message that the artist conveys. Thus it is important for an artist to recognize how far he or she should go in order to create art works that do not offend some individuals. It is widely believed that Singapore, being a Cosmopolitan city, has to be very careful when expressing our thoughts on sensitive issues. In our society, censorship is necessary to protect its community from artistic content that lack redeeming social values. It can be argued that artistic content that oppose social values should be restricted. It is stated by our minister that artists can express themselves through many other areas without crossing any red tape. This shows that total freedom of artistic expression is indeed not present in our society. In conclusion, while artists should be able freely express as much as possible, it is only fair for them to consider whether their work would cause harms to others. In both examples, from the artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ point of view, they are merely creating art freely and creatively. Yet their works did not take into consideration the effects it has on the environment, community, and individuals. Also, although the government has the responsibility and the right to protect its community from inappropriate message and content, individuals should be given certain rights to choose what they deemed suitable for themselves. The definition of obscenity differs among different individuals. What seems obscene to one may not be obscene to others. Thus it is important to have a clear line on what the rights does the government has on implementing policies and guidelines to restrict art works from the audience.